We’re in the process of updating our website to better reflect our Persians and Himalayans. Please bear with us as we continue to tweak our way to cyber nirvana. In the coming weeks, more adoptable pets will be featured, so please keep checking back with us.
Each cat you adopt from us will arrive with trimmed nails. As a new parent, you should continue this practice throughout the cat’s life. Claws that are not clipped can cause scratches, accidental injury to you or another cat during play and can damage furniture, drapes and walls. Unclipped claws also can grow to encircle the toe pad and it is possible for the claw to pierce through the toe pad causing injury and pain to the cat.
It’s best to attempt nail trimming when the cat is on the sleepy side. If a cat has had a good nap and is ready to play, you are more likely to encounter a lack of cooperation.
Use cat claw clippers to make the task quick and easy. I personally like the one shown as it provides excellent clipping control.
There are 5 toes with claws on the front foot and 4 on the back foot. The fifth claw on the front foot is called the dew claw. Each claw has a dermis or “quick” that supplies the nail with blood vessels and nerves. On light colored claws the pink colored “quick” is visible. Claws should be trimmed well in front of the quick. If the “quick” is cut it will bleed and make your cat leery of future nail trimming. Holding the paw and exerting a slight pressure on the toe pad will extend the claw, making it easier to clip.
From MCACC website:
Q: How do I report animal cruelty or dog fighting?
A: Reports of animal cruelty should be reported to your local law enforcement agency. If you live in unincorporated Maricopa County, then call the Maricopa County Sheriffs Office. They have the legal authority to investigate animal cruelty complaints.
From AHS website:
A: Reports of animal cruelty should be reported to your local law enforcement agency. If you live in unincorporated Maricopa County, then call the Maricopa County Sheriffs Office. They have the legal authority to investigate animal cruelty complaints.
For animal cruelty, Arizona Humane Society covers the cities of Phoenix and Scottsdale ONLY. To report animal cruelty in other cities, please call the appropriate number below:
480-503-6500 or email firstname.lastname@example.org
602-997-7585 ext. 2073
602-997-7585 ext. 2073
Attention, companion animal caretakers! AJ’s Best Friends would like to call your attention to these common-sense cautions that will help keep your pets safe and stress-free this time of year.
1. Please don’t leave your pet out in the yard on Halloween. There are plenty of stories of vicious pranksters who have teased, injured, stolen, and even killed pets on this night.
2. Keep your outdoor cats inside several days before and several days after Halloween. (P.S. It’s also our duty to remind you here that kitties are healthiest and happiest when they live inside ALL year round!)
3. No tricks, no treats: That bowlful of candy is for trick-or-treaters, not for Scruffy and Sammy. Chocolate in all forms can be very dangerous for dogs and cats, and tin foil and cellophane candy wrappers can be hazardous if swallowed. If you suspect your pet has ingested a potentially dangerous substance, please call your veterinarian or the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center at (888) 426-4435.
4. A carved pumpkin certainly is festive, but do exercise extreme caution if you choose to add a candle. Pets can easily knock a lit pumpkin over and cause a fire. Curious kittens especially run the risk of getting burned or singed by candle flames.
5. Dress-up can be a big mess-up for some pets. Please don’t put your dog or cat in a costume UNLESS you know he or she loves it (yup, a few pets are real hams!). For pets who prefer their “birthday suits,” however, wearing a costume can cause undue stress.
6. If you do dress up your pet, make sure the costume isn’t annoying or unsafe. It should not constrict the animal’s movement or hearing, or impede his ability to breathe or bark. Keep a look out for small, dangling, or easily chewed-off pieces on the costume that your pet could choke on.
7. Take a closer look at your pet’s costume and make sure it does not obstruct her vision in any way. Even the sweetest animals can get snappy when they can’t see.
8. All but the most social dogs and cats should be kept in a separate room during peak trick-or-treat visiting hours. Too many strangers can be scary and stressful for pets.
9. When opening the door for trick-or-treaters, take care that your cat or dog doesn’t dart outside.
10. IDs, please! Always make sure your dog or cat has proper identification. If for any reason your pet escapes and become lost, a collar and tags and/or a MICROCHIP increase the chances that he or she will be returned to you.
by Zeke Zekoff, DVM
The purpose of this paper is to introduce people who are associated with animal welfare organizations to some common first-aid techniques that can be administered to animals at times when you can’t get veterinary aid for whatever reason. These techniques are unique in that you will be using commonly available items from the drugstore. It seems that everywhere you turn now a days, drugstores have replaced gas stations on every major corner. As they prepare for the baby boomers falling apart, they also stay open longer hours than a vast majority of veterinary clinics. This makes them the most likely source of pet first-aid medical supplies when you are not able to get to a veterinarian.
Many of these notes come from a presentation made to canine corps officers several years ago. These 4-legged police officers and their two-legged partners were more often than not in harms way at night. With many cities not having veterinary emergency clinics, it seemed logical to teach the 2-legged officers how to take care of their 4-legged partners in times of medical crisis: such as hit-by-car, poisonings, lacerations and cuts, and even bullet wounds. Over the years, vets called at home have developed a knack for dissecting an owner’s health history of their pet’s ‘emergency’, and have realized that many calls were not ‘true emergencies’. With a modicum of care using supplies readily available in most people’s medicine cabinets or a nearby drugstore, most ‘emergencies’ could be handled till the next day. With this in mind, a list of commonly available drugstore first-aid items will be presented and how they can be used for your home ‘animal first-aid kit.’
Gauze sponges. Gauze sponges are used to help dress wounds. They can be used with water (or better yet, saline solutions) to help clean out a wound. The texture of the sponges helps to clean out debris from the wound that would normally contaminate it and introduce bacteria. After cleaning out a wound with the sponges and a liberal application of a flush solution, clean sponges can than be used to make a wound dressing. Liberal application of a triple antibiotic ointment (such as Neosporin, Polysporin, or Triple Antibiotic Ointment) to the sponge, along with making it damp with a sterile saline eye wash solution, will make an excellent dressing until it can be properly taken cared of. By making the sponge slightly damp, this allows the dressing to not get dried out and stick to the wound. 3 x 3” or 4 x 4” -sized sponges are usually the most versatile to keep around. Use the bandage materials described later to keep the dressings on.
Triple Antibiotic/Neosporin/Polysporin Ointment. These are commonly available antibiotic ointments that can be used on most skin infections and for the treatment of most wounds. You should be cautious using it around the eyes as it may inadvertently get into the eye by the animal rubbing its face. After cleaning out a wound (as previously described), the ointment can be applied. Ideally you should use a clean applicator device, such as a tongue depressor, or the back of a clean spoon. By attacking the bacterial load in the ‘golden period’ of wound infection (the first 2-4 hours after a wound occurs), you can significantly decrease the chance of infection in the wound area.
Rubbing Alcohol. Rubbing alcohol (70% isopropyl alcohol) is an excellent disinfectant and can be used to kill bacteria on most things you would want to use. Caution should be used with rubbing alcohol when getting anywhere near an open wound on a dog or cat. Just as it ‘burns you’ when you get it in an open cut, sore, etc., it will do the same thing to an animal. They will not just respond with yelling, but rather they may turn and try to bite the person who applied such an offending agent. If by accident you get any in the eye, flush the eye thoroughly with liberal amounts of an eyewash, or just water, if eyewash is not available.
Rubber bulb ear syringes. These remnants from the days of our youth when we had impacted wax flushed out of our ears, have many uses. They can be used with water to flush out debris from a wound; aspirate or suction out fluids from the nostrils and mouth of your pet prior to performing CPR; in the proper situation, water and hydrogen peroxide can be mixed together to make a more efficient wound cleansing agent; they can be used to collect liquid samples of vomitus, etc. if needed to analyze a poison, etc.; and, they can also be used to flush out ear canals when necessary.
Ace bandages. These readily available bandages have many uses. By properly applying an ace bandage to a lower appendage, they can act as a support bandage for injured toes, feet, carpal (wrist), and hock (ankle) areas of pets. Do not apply it too tight, or it may act as a tourniquet. Ace bandages can be used to hold a temporary splint on a fractured or injured limb. The splint can be made with a number of different objects…including rolled-up newspapers, board, etc. It can be used for holding the wound dressing on the body previously described. By applying pressure to the abdominal area in case of suspected abdominal bleeding, a properly applied large Ace bandage could help slow down blood loss and the onset of shock. These bandages are washable and reusable. It is recommended that you should have at least 2 Ace bandage rolls each of the 2” and 4” sizes.
Petroleum jelly/Vaseline®. This ‘wonder goo’ has many uses besides treating diaper rash. One use is to lubricate a rectal thermometer before taking an animal’s temperature. After a wound area is flushed out, it can be applied in a liberal amount, mixed in with a triple antibiotic ointment, to keep a wound area from ‘drying out’ and sticking to any bandage materials. This is especially useful when you have a thermal burn wound as fluid loss can be critical from this type of wound. Degloving injuries and ‘road burns’ that occur during hit-by-cars (HBC) are also another area where petroleum jelly applied to your dressing can be a tremendous help. Do not use petroleum jelly dressings on chemical burns as their moisture-retention ability may also keep the chemical irritant trapped on the body. Petroleum jelly can also serve as a laxative, as it is the basis for most hairball laxatives. Most cats would be given ½ to 1 teaspoon applied on their paws, face, or in their mouth.
Eye wash. It is important to always have a good eye flush solution readily available. Most drugstores sell saline eyewash that can be gotten for less than $2.00 for a 12 oz. Bottle. Having more than one on hand would be better. Contaminants that can get into the eye include dust, chemicals, smoke, insects (when those dogs that are determined to replay the Titanic scene by sticking their head out of the window of a car), grass awns, and even dirty water from contaminated ponds and streams. A good, liberal flow into the affected eye is important. Have the animal look at the ceiling or sky and keep flushing for 1 –2 minutes. Many people will think to try a Visine® or such substance in the eye. It is much better to use water than this. For eye care, it is important to not put anything into an animal’s eye that you wouldn’t put in your own, but Visine and contact solutions are exceptions to this. If your pet is squinting badly, light-sensitive and constantly rubbing its eye, this may indicate that it has scratched its cornea. This is a painful injury, and seeking veterinary care should be a priority.
Non-stick Wound Pads. These wound-dressing pads, which come in sterile wrappers, are usually 3 x 3” or 4 x 4”. They make great wound dressings that you can use with your triple antibiotic ointment and Vaseline/ petroleum jelly. They are better for final wound dressings than gauze sponges.
Stretch gauze bandages. These one-time use bandages are great for helping to keep wound dressings on. The stretch-feature will help to accommodate any swelling that normally accompanies most trauma wounds. It reduces the chance that the bandage will become a tourniquet when applied. Having said that, it is important that these bandages are NOT applied too tight. The looser, the better.
Cloth tape. This type of tape is important to help keep wound dressings where they are supposed to be. It is important to involve the animal’s hair into the tape as it is applied. This will assure you that the dressing won’t end up on the floor of your car.
Blankets. These are not readily available at most drugstores, but do have many uses. In cases of trauma where shock may set in, they can be used to keep the animal warm. Rolled up, it can be used as a support bandage for neck wounds, fractured limbs, and pressure support around the abdomen to help ward off shock. They also make great stretchers, and help to contain an injured cat that may be aggressive due to pain.
Tweezers. These are important to help pull debris out of wound, objects out or mouths without getting your fingers involved, and such items as insect stingers and spine needles from cacti.
Splints. Splints can be bought custom-made, but they can also be made out of a number of materials. These include newspapers, branches, boards, and any other straight and hard object. With a roll of roll-cotton, a splint, and an Ace bandage or Vet wrap, you can make a very stabilizing bandage called a Robert Jones bandage. These are great for stabilizing lower leg fractures of animals until veterinary attention can be sought.
Rectal Thermometers. Thermometers serve a purpose when you are worried about hypothermia (low body temperature) and hyperthermia (high body temperature such as may occur in a heat stroke). The important thing to remember is that the normal canine and feline body temperature ranges between 101.0 degrees F. and 102.5 degrees F. Do not use a ‘warm nose’ as your determinant of a fever in an animal. Also remember to lubricate the thermometer, have someone holding the animal’s head when inserting the thermometer, insert it in at least 1 ½ inches, and read after one minute.
VetRap® bandage material. This is a bandage material that can be acquired in feed stores, Western stores (used a lot in horses), and your favorite veterinary clinic. This ‘self-stick’ bandage has a lot of uses in cases of emergencies. You must be careful to apply it without too much stretching of the bandage, as stretching it too tight may make it a tourniquet. By not overstretching it when applying it, it can be removed and used several times. Have 2” and 4” rolls available.
Ziplock bags. Many uses for this kitchen favorite. Among them are storage containers for samples of body fluids, contaminants, etc.; temporary ice bags; helping to keep your first-aid supplies dry till you need them, and water-proof bags to keep feet injuries dry. One quart and one gallon ziplock bags are good sizes to have.
Muzzle. This overlooked item can be very useful if you are confronted with an injured and painful dog. No matter how well any dog is trained, pain from trauma might induce a dog to turn on you no matter how close you and the dog are. You can get soft, nylon quick-release muzzles through your veterinarian’s distributors; use a doubled-up gauze bandage roll from the drugstore in looping fashion; or use a belt you may have on. Be sure to have your veterinarian or one of the staff members of the clinic show you how to properly apply a muzzle the next time you are in. the clinic. Be prepared in advance for this one. You cannot help if you are treating a bite wound on yourself.
- Pepto Bismol® tablets (bismuth subsulfate). (NOT TO BE GIVEN TO CATS)
These are good for non-complicated cases of vomiting in the dog. The ingredients in this tablet have proven anti-inflammatory properties in the GI tract and also help to apply a protectant lining to the stomach. Tablets are usually easier to administer vs. liquids. The approximate dose is one adult tablet/ 15 – 25# of dog’s body weight every 8 – 12 hours. Two precautions. This tablet will make the dog’s bowel movement appear very dark for several days. The second is that if your veterinarian has to take a radiograph of your dog’s abdomen soon after administering the tablet, the tablet will appear to be a metallic-density foreign object in your dog’s abdomen and may lead to an in-correct diagnosis of a foreign body that is causing all the problems. Be sure to let your veterinarian know what medications you have administered.
- Kaopectate® tablets. (NOT TO BE GIVEN TO CATS) The kaolin and pectin in these tablets are especially useful in helping to the line the intestinal tract of a dog with diarrhea. The usual dose is 1 tablet (less messy than liquid) for every 25 – 30 lbs. of dog’s body weight, given every 8 – 12 hours.
- Benadryl® (diphenhydramine). This antihistamine can be very useful for very pruritic (itchy) dogs, motion sickness, and for allergic reactions such as from a bee sting. Adult Benadryl® is available in 25mg capsules or tablets, or 25mg/5ml (teaspoon). Children’s Benadryl® is available in 12.5mg chewable tablets or 12.5mg/5 ml (teaspoon). The approximate dose is 0.5 to 1mg/lb of body weight every 8 – 12 hours. For example, a 25# dog would get one half to one adult tablet every 8 – 12 hours. Drowsiness and a dry mouth will be the main side effects you may see. In cases of allergic insect sting reactions where the face and muzzle swells up suddenly, giving this antihistamine soon after seeing the symptoms can help alleviate the discomfort. The same doses can also be used to help alleviate intense itching from skin problems, as well as decrease the side effects of motion sickness. This medication is also available in a 1% and 2% ointment that can be used on the skin to help treat ‘hot spots’ or acute moist dermatitis of the skin.
- 1% Hydrocortisone cream. This popular over-the-counter steroid itchy-skin remedy can also be used in dogs and cats. If your dog has a ‘hot spot’ (which is the laymen’s term for acute moist dermatitis), it can drive your dog to further inflict damage to itself. These can literally come up ‘over night’. Most are painful as they are deep-seated infections that involve the superficial pain nerve endings in the skin. Until you get professional help for your pet, the best thing that you can do is to begin treatment by gently washing the inflamed area with a mixture of 1 part 3% hydrogen peroxide to 2 parts of water. Be sure to have someone restrain the head of your dog. After washing the area, dry the area by pat drying with a soft towel. You can begin treatment by mixing a 50:50 mix of 1% hydrocortisone cream and triple antibiotic ointment (Neosporin or polysporin also works) and applying a thin layer to the affected skin. Take your dog for a walk afterwards to give the treatment time to work and take its mind off from wanting to lick the area.
- Aspirin. (NOT TO BE GIVEN TO CATS) Used correctly, aspirin is a very effective analgesic (pain reliever), anti-inflammatory, and fever reducer in dogs. It is considered in a class of drugs called NonSteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAID). This class of drugs can be very irritating to the stomach and can cause everything from vomiting/nausea to bleeding gastric ulcers. It needs to be used at the proper dosage and frequency. At any signs of nausea or vomiting, you should not continue the drug. Giving it with a little bit of food in the stomach may help prevent these side effects. The usual dose is 1 – 5grain (325mg) adult aspirin/ 60 lbs. of dog’s body weight every 12 hours. A ‘baby aspirin’ or low-dose adult aspirin contains 1 ¼ grain (or approximately 81mg) and would be appropriate for a 15 lb. dog every 12 hours.
- 3% Hydrogen Peroxide. This inexpensive solution is a part of many drug cabinets, and has many uses. The first use is to help wash out wounds and clean the debris, blood and dirt out of a wound. The foaming action helps to break up the dirt and clear out bacterial contaminants. It can also be damaging to tissues, so diluting it with water will make it safer. DO NOT pour peroxide into any puncture wounds as the sudden foaming action will cause gas production and stretch the skin and subcutaneous with resultant sharp pain and discomfort. This would be a situation where the animal could turn around and bite due to the pain.
3% hydrogen peroxide is also an effective emetic (causing vomiting)…DO NOT USE THE 20% SOLUTION USED TO BLEACH HAIR! If your pet has swallowed something such as chocolate, pills on your bed stand, etc., it has occurred in the last 15 – 20 minutes, and if you are advised to make your pet vomit, you can administer 3% hydrogen peroxide with a tablespoon to get it to vomit the substance up. Do not use it if you have seen your pet swallow a sharp object or a caustic substance. This is a true emergency, and the pet must be seen soon. The effective dose, in those situations when you can use it, is 5 –25 ml (1-5 tsp.)/ 10 lb. of body weight to the back of the throat. You can repeat it every 5 – 10 minutes for 2 – 3x. The vomitus that comes up will be white and very foamy and hopefully have the offending agent in it. After the vomiting episode, your dog or cat will feel very sheepish. You may try giving your dog a slice or two of water-soaked white bread to settle its stomach. This usually works faster and better than syrup of ipecac. If you have some of it (ipecac), the dose is 1- 2ml/kg in dogs and 3 – 6ml/kg in cats, but sometimes in can take up to 20 – 40 minutes to induce vomiting. In cats it works best if diluted 50:50 with water and given 6ml/kg of body weight. The viscosity of syrup of ipecac is similar to motor oil.
Common Sense Numbers That You Can Use
1 kilogram (kg) = 2.2 pounds
…..if you want to rough it, make a kilogram equal to 2 pounds, i.e. a 20 pound dog = 10 kg. (rather than 9.09 kg.)…it will do in a pinch.
1 Milliliter (ml) approx = 1 cubic centimeter (cc). These terms are used interchangeably.
- 5 ml = 1 teaspoon
- 3 teaspoons = 1 tablespoon
- 15 ml = 1 tablespoon
- 2 tablespoons = 1 ounce (oz.)
- 30 ml = 1 oz.
- Therefore, 1 oz. = 6 teaspoons
1 cup = 8 ounces
- 240 ml = 8 oz.
- 2 cups = 1 pint (pt)
- 2 pints = 1 quart (qt)
- 1 quart is approximately = to 1 liter or 1000 ml.
1 grain = 65 mg., therefore a normal 5 grain aspirin tablet is equal to 325 mg.
A baby aspirin or low-dose adult aspirin is 1 ¼ grain or approx. 81mg; it takes 4 baby aspirins to equal 1 adult aspirin.
A dog and cat’s normal rectal body temperature (with rectal thermometer staying in for 1 minute) ranges from 101.0 degrees Fahrenheit – 102.5 degrees Fahrenheit. This normal range may vary depending on the dog or cat’s activities and the environmental temperature (there are many ‘normal and healthy’ dogs who have a 103.0 +/- degree Fahrenheit temperature due to excitement and hot days). ALL DOGS HAVE A TEMPERATURE, NOT ALL DOGS HAVE A FEVER!
Respiratory rate of healthy, resting dog: (young) 20 – 22 breaths/minute and for old dogs 14 –16 breaths/minute.
Heart rate of healthy, resting dog: Young dog: 110-120 beats/minute; Dog of large breed, adult: 60 – 80 beats/minute; Dog of small breed, adult: 80 – 120 beats/minute.
Chances are you will never encounter a natural disaster in your lifetime, but if you do, you’ll kick yourself a thousand times over for not being prepared. In the event that there is a disaster while you are away from home, please make arrangements with neighbors, family or friends ahead of time for your pets to be rescued. Below are some things to have prepared and ready to go, “just in case”.
Put Pet Alert Decals on the windows of your home. This will alert emergency personnel and neighbors that there are pets inside the home, the type of pet/s you have, and how many there are. This is essential if you are planning to be away on a trip.
Emergency contact information – friends, family, and your veterinarians information
Microchip your pet – keep this information up-to date
One crate for each pet – a travel crate should be large enough for your pet to sit, stand, turn around, lay down, legs should be able to extend
At least three days of food (minimum) – sudden changes in diet can cause your pet to have diarrhea, be sure to pack your pets regular diet
Favorite toys, treats, bedding – these will be familiar items to your pet, also include something with your scent on it, such as a t-shirt
Leash, collar and harness – leashes are required when you take dogs (cats should be in a pet taxi/carrier) into a public place, especially in a disaster situation.
Muzzle – pack a muzzle, especially if your pet is of the nervous sort, your pet will be even more nervous in stressful surroundings
Kitty litter, pan and scoop – a small litter box, plus pine pellet-type litter (it’s lightweight and absorbent for several days usage)
Newspaper – to line the pet taxi/carrier
Food and water dish – metal or plastic bowls only
Stakes and tie-outs – besides keeping your pet on a leash at all times, a stake with a tie-out can come in handy
Trash bags, plastic bags, paper towels- nervous and stressed pets potty more frequently
Instructions – document your pets medications, dosages, vaccination history, keep in a plastic baggie
Photos – include photos of your pets face, body, unusual markings, and a picture of both you and your pet together in order to provide ownership, put in a plastic baggie
It’s always good to have a pet first aid kit on hand for emergency situations.
by Rebecca F. Wisch
Animal Legal & Historical Center
Publish Date: 2008 (updated 2010)
Place of Publication: Michigan State University College of Law Printable Version
Is it illegal to leave your dog in a parked car? The answer to this question, of course, depends on in the state in which you live. Actually, only 14 states (AZ, CA, IL, ME, MD, MN, NV, NH, NJ, NY, ND, SD, VT, and WV) have statutes that specifically prohibit leaving an animal in confined vehicle. The next factor important to the question is the condition under which the the animal is left in the vehicle. Most of these laws provide that the animal must be confined or unattended in a parked or stationary vehicle. Further, the laws add that in order for a person to violate the law, the conditions have to endanger the animal’s life. Some of the statutes specifically state that extreme hot or cold temperatures, lack of adequate ventilation, or failing to provide proper food or drink meet this definition. Other laws are more vague and just require that the conditions are such that physical injury or death is likely to result.
While not all states have laws that address animals in parked vehicles, numerous local ordinances prohibit this, and more may be enacted. It is critical then that owners are aware of their local laws concerning this subject. Even with out a state or local law, this action could still constitute cruelty under some circumstances. In fact, in the Texas case of Lopez v. State, the defendant left his dog in his car on a hot day to go and watch a movie in a theater. He was ultimately convicted under the state’s anti-cruelty law. Notably, Texas does not have a statute that specifically addresses dogs left in parked vehicles. Below is a table that describes these laws by outlining the major concerns within the laws.
Table of States with Laws Prohibiting Inhumane Confinement of Animals in Parked Motor Vehicle
|State||Citation and Link||Animals Covered||Circumstances Prohibited||Penalty||Rescue Provisions|
|AZ||AZ ST § 13-2910
|An animal (“animal” means a mammal, bird, reptile or amphibian)||Unattended and confined in a motor vehicle and physical injury to or death of the animal is likely to result.
|Class 1 misdemeanor||A peace officer, animal control enforcement agent or animal control enforcement deputy may use reasonable force to open a vehicle to rescue an animal.
|CA||CA PENAL § 597.7
|An animal||Leave or confine an animal in any unattended motor vehicle under conditions that endanger the health or well-being of an animal due to heat, cold, lack of adequate ventilation, or lack of food or water, or other circumstances that could reasonably be expected to cause suffering, disability, or death to the animal.
|First conviction: fine not exceeding $100 per animal.
If the animal suffers great bodily injury, a fine not exceeding $500, imprisonment in a county jail not exceeding 6 months, or by both.
Any subsequent violation of this section, regardless of injury to the animal, punishable by a fine not exceeding $500, imprisonment in a county jail not exceeding six months, or by both.
|Peace officer, humane officer, or animal control officer is authorized to take all steps that are reasonably necessary for the removal of an animal from a motor vehicle.
Must leave written notice bearing his or her name and office, and the address of the location where the animal can be claimed.
|IL||510 ILCS 70/7.1
What is PlaqueOff? ProDen PlaqueOff is an innovation in pet dental care! Suitable for dogs and cats, PlaqueOff is made from natural plant marine algae D1070 and comes in a granulated powder form. Rich in natural iodine, free of artificial coloring, preservatives, gluten, salt and sugar, PlaqueOff has been clinically proven to reduce and help prevent plaque and tartar.
D1070 (Ascophyllum nodosum) is seaweed harvested from the clean and cold seas of Norway and Iceland. It has a high content of fucose-containing sulphated polysaccharides. These compounds interfere with bacterial growth, colonization, and calculus deposition. When D1070 is absorbed into the bloodstream, it prevents plaque from sticking to your pet’s teeth. Existing tartar becomes porous and is then easily removable by brushing, cleaning, or bone chewing. D1070 also helps to whiten teeth and freshen breath.
Iodine can be very beneficial to your pet’s overall health. It helps with proper thyroid function, balancing hypertension, cardiovascular health, bone pain and healing, lowering cholesterol and blood pressure, kidney and bladder infections, constipation, cancer, skin diseases, and respiratory disorders.
Why use PlaqueOff? It is estimated 85% of dogs and 70% of cats over the age of 3 years show signs of gum disease, the major cause of tooth loss. Gum disease is caused by the accumulation of plaque bacteria and is converted to calculus by the minerals naturally occurring in saliva. Untreated plaque and tartar build-up can also lead to infections that can spread throughout the body and damage the heart, lungs, liver or kidneys. Since daily brushing of your cat or dog’s teeth can be difficult to achieve, PlaqueOff – used in conjunction with regular bone chewing – provides an easy solution to improving your pet’s oral hygiene. In addition, the iodine levels found in PlaqueOff are crucial in boosting the immune system and can help fight off any gum disease related problems.
When should PlaqueOff be used? PlaqueOff should be added to dry or wet food on a daily basis to combat existing tartar and plaque build up and to maintain your pet’s oral health. Each bottle contains a serving spoon to measure out the proper amount. Cats and small dogs (up to 25 lbs): ½-1 scoop. Medium sized dogs (25-50 lbs): 1-2 scoops. Large and giant dogs (50+ lbs): 2-3 scoops.
Ringworm is a fungal infection caused by a fungus that grows in the dead, surface layers of the skin, hair or claws.It has nothing to do with worms. The scientific name for ringworm is dermatophytosis and the fungi which cause the disease are called dermatophytes.
Some cats can have ringworm and show no signs of it. Signs can include patches of hair loss and/or a red,scaley circle on the skin. If you have more than one cat, it will not matter which one has is – ringworm is contagious, you will have to treat all of the animals anyway. Treatment usually lasts about 6-8 weeks, but you must stick with it. Here are some suggestions on how to treat the condition.
There are approximately 40 different species of dermatophyte, with 119 known strands, each tending to cause infection in particular species of hosts. In the cat, the cause of more than 90% of cases of ringworm is the dermatophyte Microsporum canis (M canis). This organism can also cause infection in many other species, including dogs and humans. Other dermatophytes that may cause ringworm in cats are Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum persicolor, which can be acquired by contact with infected wild rodents.
Ringworm infections are often self-limiting, clearing up in 6 to 8 weeks whether they are treated or not. However, this is not always the case and there are cats who have very persistent problems with ringworm. In addition, many of the cats who no longer have ringworm lesions are still carriers of the disease. For this reason, we favor treatment of cats when we grow ringworm organisms from cultures.
Dept of Small Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, evaluated seven commonly used topical antifungal products (i.e., lime sulfur [Lymdyp], chlorhexidine, captan, povidone-iodine, sodium hypochlorite, and enilconazole solutions, and ketoconazole shampoo). These products were evaluated for their antifungal activity on Microsporum canis-infected hairs from dogs and cats in an in-vitro study. Hairs were soaked or shampooed in each product for five minutes twice a week for four weeks. Of the seven products used in this study, lime sulfur and enilconazole solutions were superior in inhibiting fungal growth; no growth occurred on fungal cultures after two treatments with either product.
Chlorhexidine and povidone iodine solutions were effective after four treatments, and sodium hypochlorite solution and ketoconazole shampoo inhibited fungal growth after eight treatments. Captan did not inhibit fungal growth during the test period.
White-Weithers N, Medleau L.
Department of Small Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens 30602, USA.
PMID: 7634061 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
How do cats become infected with M canis ?
Ringworm is contagious. Spores are the infectious stage of dermatophytes and are produced by M canis during an infection. They are typically found in clusters around infected hairs and can only be seen using a microscope. Infected hairs are shed into the cat’s environment. Cats may become infected either by direct contact with an infected animal or by exposure to a contaminated environment or object, such as grooming tools, clippers or bedding. Spores in the environment are very robust and without treatment can remain infectious for approximately two years.
Spores attach to the skin and germinate to produce hyphae that invade skin and hair. It is not known how many spores are needed to start an infection. Self-grooming, particularly licking, may be an effective way of harmlessly removing spores from the skin and haircoat. Intact skin is very resistant to infection. Cats with pre-existing skin disease or other conditions resulting in skin trauma such as flea, lice or mite infestations are much more likely to become infected following exposure to spores.
Ringworm seems to be more common in young cats less than one year old, and in long-haired cats. The reasons for this are unknown. It is speculated that young cats may have immature immune defense mechanisms which limits their ability to resist infection, and too young kittens just don’t spend very much time in washing themselves. In long-haired cats grooming is less efficient and the skin surface is more protected from exposure to the sun (which dermatophytes don’t like) than in short-haired cats.
What does a cat with ringworm look like?
The appearance of cats with ringworm is very variable. Some cats have severe skin disease while other cats have only very minor lesions or no lesions at all and look completely normal. Typical skin lesions are discrete, roughly circular, areas of hair loss, particularly on the head, ears or extremities of the paws. The hairs surrounding affected areas appear broken. The affected skin is often scaly and may look inflamed. However, ringworm can look very similar to many other feline skin diseases, such a flea allergic dermatitis, symmetrical alopecia and feline acne. Some loss of hair is usually involved, but the amount of inflammation, scaling and itchiness can be very variable. In very unusual cases cats may appear just to have an ear infection or infection of the claws.
How is ringworm diagnosed?
It is impossible to diagnose a cat as having ringworm based on its appearance alone because this is so variable and can easily be confused with other skin diseases, or look like a normal cat. Diagnostic tests are used to confirm the presence of M canis or other dermatophytes. Most veterinary dermatologists will use at least one of these tests on any cat with skin disease to investigate the possibility that ringworm might be involved.
1.The ultraviolet Wood’s lamp can be used to examine cats suspected of having ringworm. It is shone onto the haircoat in a dark room and infected hairs may fluoresce (or glow) with a characteristic apple-green colour. The fluorescence is thought to be caused by a substance produced by M canis. Unfortunately, not all dermatophyte species, or varieties of M canis,fluoresce, so failure to demonstrate fluorescent hairs does not rule out the possibility of ringworm. In addition, extraneous substances may cause a similar fluorescence. For these reasons the result of Wood’s lamp examination is not definitive, but it can provide a very useful method of selecting hairs for further examination, either by fungal culture or microscopic examination.
2. Microscopic examination of suspect hairs can provide a very rapid positive diagnosis. The observer looks for fungal elements and spores associated with hairs. Interpretation can be difficult and it is best performed by an experienced mycologist. It is not possible to determine which species of dermatophyte is involved. A negative result is unreliable and may only mean that the sample of hairs examined was not representative and did not include infected hairs.
3. Fungal culture is the most reliable way of diagnosing ringworm. Cat hairs are collected and used to inoculate plates of a special culture medium, which are then incubated in a laboratory. Hairs for culture can be selected because they are damaged or closely associated with skin lesions or because they fluoresce when examined with the Wood’s lamp. Hairs are collected from cats that look completely normal by whole body brushing using a sterile toothbrush or massage brush. Culture enables precise identification of the species of dermatophyte involved, but because dermatophytes are slow growing it may take several weeks for laboratories to report a result. A positive result indicates that the cat is infected with ringworm or is carrying dermatophytes on its coat (due to exposure to an infected environment). If one cat in a household is diagnosed as having ringworm then all of the other animals will need to be examined, even if they seem to be completely unaffected. In most cases all cats in a household will be culture-positive and require treatment.
How is ringworm treated?
Although in most healthy cats ringworm infection will resolve spontaneously after many weeks, treatment is necessary in all cases to speed this up because of the risk of infection of humans and contact animals. Some cats will not eliminate infection unless they are treated. In some cases, prolonged courses of treatment will be needed to achieve a cure. Treatment can be broken down into several elements, all of which are essential.
- Treatment of any other skin conditions
Any pre-existing skin condition or parasitic infestation (fleas, lice, mites) which causes skin damage should be treated specifically as it could be causing skin damage which predisposes the cat to ringworm.
- Treatment of ringworm
All affected animals should be treated by administration of (a) tablets (systemic therapy) and (b) treatment applied directly to the haircoat (topical therapy).
(a) Systemic therapy : Griseofulvin is the drug most commonly used for the treatment of dermatophytosis and is the only anti-fungal medicine that is licensed (FDA approved) for use in the cat. Absorption of the drug can be improved by giving fat, oil or a fatty meal at the same time as the tablets. Griseofulvin should not be used in pregnant animals because it can cause neo-natal abnormalities. Pregnant women should avoid handling griseofulvin. Griseofulvin can cause other unwanted side effects, such as causing liver damage, so if a cat receiving treatment becomes i,ll this medicine should be stopped and veterinary advice sought. Cats with feline immunodeficiency virus infection (FIV) are much more susceptible to dangerous side effects, so your vet may recommend a screening test for FIV before starting therapy. Alternative drugs are now available and may be used in cats that will not tolerate or are unresponsive to griseofulvin. These are all human medicines and are expensive.
Internal medications are most effective at treating infection. Systemic therapy with griseofulvin, terbinafine, ketoconazole, itraconazole, fluconazole, or lufenuron is recommended for inflammatory varieties. The following regimens are recommended:
|Griseofulvin||500 mg once daily for 4-6 weeks|
|Fluconazole||150 mg once daily for 4-6 weeks|
|Itraconazole||100 mg daily for 1-2 weeks|
|Terbinafine||250 mg daily for 2-4 weeks|
- Lufenuron (Program Rx), Cats and dogs: 80-100 mg/kg, Cats in catteries: at least 100 mg/kg
The treatment should be repeated once every two weeks until at least two consecutive fungal cultures are negative over a period of two weeks.
(b) Topical therapy : Spot therapy with one of the human anti-fungal creams is not recommended for animals because the area of infected skin is often considerably wider than the skin lesions might suggest. Topical therapy is best applied to the whole body by either shampooing or dipping (using a sulpher based product called Lymdyp which is available without a prescription on the internet). Clipping of cats will make this much easier, particularly for long-haired cats, and also reduce environmental contamination. Clipping should be done carefully in order to avoid damaging the skin, as this can spread infection and make the skin lesions look worse for a short time. It is normally necessary to sedate cats to clip them safely. Infected hair should be disposed of by burning and clippers should be decontaminated properly using one of the products suggested below. There is a “vaccination” for ringworm. It is effective at controlling clinical symptoms of ringworm but not at preventing the actual infection. In a humane society situation this may not be a satisfactory solution to ringworm infection since suppressing the symptoms would make it even more difficult to identify carriers. Cleanliness and routine disinfection are still the best options for controlling ringworm in a shelter situation.
The only product licensed for the topical treatment of ringworm in cats, in conjunction with griseofulvin, is a shampoo (Malaseb: Leo Labs). It is usually used twice a week. The coat is first completely wetted and the shampoo is then lathered on and massaged well down into the skin. The shampoo is left in contact with the skin for 10 minutes (timed with a clock) before rinsing. Most cats tolerate this remarkably well. Leo labs have produced a leaflet giving tips about shampooing cats.
3. Decontamination of the environment and contaminated objects
If possible, infected cats should be restricted to one easily cleanable room. This makes decontamination much easier and will reduce exposure of humans to the cats and sources of infection. All areas of the house to which infected animals have had access will require decontamination, but the majority of effort can then be concentrated on the room in which the cats are confined.
Any contaminated objects such as collars, baskets, igloos, bedding, soft toys and grooming tools which cannot be disinfected should be disposed of, preferably by burning. Many chemical disinfectants claim to have good activity against fungi but few are very effective against ringworm spores. Products that do work include Clorox Bleach (original, not scented) ( 1 part bleach to 11 parts water has some activity), Enilconazole and Virkon (a disinfectant powder) both available from vets.
These disinfectants should be used daily on hard surfaces and objects such as feeding bowls, but cannot be used on carpets and soft furnishings. On these surfaces daily thorough vacuuming is the only practical method of reducing contamination. Vacuum bags should be disposed of by burning. Steam cleaning is of limited use because the temperature of the water delivered is insufficient to kill spores.
How long will it take for my cat to get better?
Treatment should be continued until all of the affected animals have recovered and are negative on fungal cultures. Skin lesions will often resolve before the cats have eliminated the fungal infection (usually 4 weeks after lesions are gone), so it is necessary to monitor progress by taking hair samples (whole body brushing) for fungal culture. If treatment is stopped prematurely the ringworm may seem to reoccur after a time, although in fact it was never eliminated. In most cases, cats will need treatment for a minimum of six weeks, and in some cases much longer. Typically, the more cats in a household the harder it is to resolve the problem.
M canis infection in humans
Ringworm can easily be spread from people to people and people to cats. Children are particularly at risk. Direct contact with infected animals should be minimized. Gloves and protective clothing should be worn when administering treatment. Efficient environmental decontamination will reduce exposure to dermatophyte spores.
Dermatophytosis in humans presents as circular patches of thickened, inflamed skin or hair loss with scaling. These may be itchy. Lesions may occur anywhere on the skin or scalp. If any skin lesions develop the family doctor should be consulted. Ringworm in humans usually responds well to treatment. Topical therapy is useful in cases of noninflammatory lesions. This can play a very important role in reducing environmental contamination.
|If your pet has any of these symptoms, bring in IMMEDIATELY
|Inability to Breathe||Noisy respiration, blue tongue, gasping for breath|
|Bleeding That Won’t Stop||From any part of the body – Apply pressure and come in now!|
|Inability to Urinate or Appears Constipated||But continues to try|
|Inability to Deliver Puppies or Kittens||Keeps trying or has stopped trying|
|Pain||Severe – Continuous with no relief|
|Vomiting, Diarrhea||Continuous or with the Appearance of Blood|
|Loss of Balance or Consciousness||Includes tremors, coma, staggering, blindness, fainting|
|Itching||Continuous scratching, biting, self-mutilation|
|Penetrating Wounds||Any place, but especially chest or abdomen|
|Poisoning||Bring the container or commercial name and chemical name|
|Injury||Continuous pain and/or total lameness|
|Hit by car|
|Any other sign that looks serious!|
|If your pet has any of these symptoms, bring in TODAY
|Difficult Breathing||With or without cough; eats and drinks; not frantic|
|Vomiting / Diarrhea||Without blood; no pain; no unusual contents|
|Sudden Lameness||No apparent cause|
|Swallowed Object||Even if you THINK pet swallowed it|
|Severe Itching||With possible self-mutilation|
|Strange Odor||Usually disagreeable, from any part of the body|
|Burns||Heat; chemicals; Go Immediately if Extensive|
|Injuries||Not severe emergency but will worsen with delay- lacerations|
|If your pet has any of these symptoms, it is safe to wait OVERNIGHT
|Vomiting / Diarrhea||No blood; no foreign material; no pain; not continuous|
|Itching||Mild to moderate; no skin damage; not continuous; no bleeding|
|Lameness||Little or no pain; no discomfort in walking; not continuous|
|Thirst / Urination||Excessive drinking and/or elimination of urine with no blood, no pain, no straining or discomfort, or bloody appearance to the urine|
|Loss of Appetite||Skipped one main meal, but no other signs of illness|
|Most Skin Problems|